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Inovacije: poreski novac, privatni profiti

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Rast proizvodnje po glavi stanovnika određuje životni standard. Inovacije određuju rast proizvodnje po glavi stanovnika. Ali, šta je to što određuje rast inovacija? Odgovor je pre država nego privatni sektor, tvrdi Mariana Macukato (Mariana Mazzucato), profesor ekonomije na univerzitetu u Saseksu. Martin Volf glavni ekonomski kolumnista FT, kritički procenjuje argumente izložene u knjizi “Preduzetnička država” ( Enterpreneurial State) 

Konvencionalni ekonomija nudi apstraktne modele; uvrežena mudrost insistira da odgovor na pitanje ko su majka i otac inovacija jeste – privatno preduzetništvo. U ovoj sjajnoj knjizi Mariana Macukato, profesor ekonomije sa univerziteta Saseks, specijalizovana za nauku i tehnologiju, tvrdi da je prvo (privatno) beskorisno a drugo (preduzetništvo) nepotpun odgovor. Da, inovacija zavisi od smelog preduzetništva. Međutim, entitet koji preuzima najhrabrije rizike i ostvaruje najveće pomake nije privatni sektor, to je često osporavana država.

Macukato primećuje da u slučaju „75 odsto novih molekularnih entiteta [odobrenih od strane američke Agencije za hranu i lekove između 1993 i 2004] trag vodi do istraživanja  … koje finansira državna labaratorija  Nacionalni institut za zdravlje (NIH) u SAD „. U Velikoj Britaniji Medical Research Council otkrio je monoklonska antitela, koja su temelj biotehnologije (monoklonska antitela (mAt) i njihovi derivati su najveća grupa proteina koji se koriste u terapiji kancera na primer, i predstavljaju segment farmaceutske industrije koji se najbrže razvija). Takva otkrića su potom predata jeftino privatnim kompanijama što im je omogućilo da žanju ogromne profite.

Šta Apple duguje državi

Možda je čak ubedljiviji primer revolucije u sferi informacija i komunikacija. Američka Nacionalna fondacija za nauku finansirala je razvoj algoritma koji činio podlogu Google pretraživača. Prvi izvori sredstava za finansiranje Apple došli su iz američkog državnog programa za inovacije u malim kompanijama (Small Business Innovation Research Program). Osim toga, „sve tehnologije koje čine iPhone ‘pametnim’ je takođe finansirala država … Internet, bežične mreže, GPS (Global Positioning Sistem), mikroelektronika, ekran osetljiv na dodir i najnoviji program aktivacije glasom (SIRI lični asistent) . „Apple je to briljantno sastavio, ali je  pritom ubrao plodove sedam decenija dugog državno podržanog inovacionog procesa.

Zašto je uloga države toliko važna? Odgovor leži u tome što inovacije prate velike neizvesnosti,  dugo vreme trajanja i visoki troškovi u vezi sa osnovnim, naučno zasnovanim inovacijama. Privatne kompanije ne mogu i neće da snose te troškove, delom zbog toga što one ne mogu da budu sigurne da će ubrati plodove takvog truda, a delom zbog toga što ovi plodovi leže tako daleko u budućnosti.

Zaista, što je ekonomija više konkurentna i bazirana na finansijskoj isplativosti, to je manje privatni sektor spreman da podnese takve rizike. Kupovina sopstvenih akcija je očigledno daleko privlačniji način korišćenja viška novca nego njegovo trošenje na fundamentalne inovacije. Dani kada je AT & T bio vodeći igrač u stvaranju Bell Labs (naučnog centra koji je odgovoran za takve izume kao što su radio astronomija, tranzistor, laser, informaciona teorija, programski jezici C i C++ između ostalog ) su davno prošli. U svakom slučaju, privatni sektor nije mogao da stvori internet ili GPS. Samo je američka vojska imala resurse za to.

Verovatno su najvažniji pokretači inovacija u poslednjih pet decenija bili Agencija za napredne istraživačke projekte američkog ministarstva odbrane i NIH. Danas će, ako svet želi fundamentalne pomake u tehnologijama u energetici, država morati u tome da igra veliku ulogu. Zaista, američka vlada je čak i pomogla i pronalazak “frakinga”, tehnologije za lomljenja uljnih škriljaca i eksploataciju gasa.

Macukato insistira da to uključuje više od državne podrške istraživanju i razvoju, iako je to od vitalnog značaja (u SAD, država finansira četvrtinu istraživanja i razvoja i skoro 60 odsto osnovnih istraživanja). Ali, država je takođe aktivan preduzetnik, koji preuzima rizik i, naravno, prihvata neizbežne propuste. Amerika je bila razvojno orijentisana država od vremena Aleksandra Hamiltona. Zaista, nedavna uloga nacije kao glavnog promotera osnovnih inovacija je plod koliko zalaganja države toliko i njenih poletnih privatnih preduzetnika. Nemački neuspeh da ostane predvodnik današnjih novih tehnologija, za razliku od vremena pre Drugog svetskog rata, možda je rezultat toga što je uloga države u sektoru inovacija sada limitirana.

Zabluda o venčr kapitalistima i birokratama

Macukato voli uništavanje mitova o rizičnom kapitalu venčr kapitalista koji navodno vole rizike i birokratama koje izbegavaju rizike. Da li je bitno to što je uloga države izbisana iz priče o uspešnim inovacijama? Ona tvrdi da jeste.

Prvo, kreatori politika sve više veruju u mit da je država jedino prepreka, čime lišavaju inovacije podrške i mogućnosti da ona donese prosperitet čovečanstvu. Zaista, rasplamsalo preziranje vlada uništava volju i kapacitete države da preuzme preduzetničke rizike.

Drugo, vlada sve više shvata da finansira rizične poduhvate dok privatni sector bere lovorike inovacija. Ono što se dakle pojavljuje kao stanje stvari na obzorju, dakle, nije istinski simbiotski ekosistem inovacija, već parazitski, gde se socijalizuju gubici , dok su profiti uglavnom privatizovani. Da li obični poreski obveznici shvataju da se novcem od  njihovih poreza finansiraju fundamentalna istraživanja koje pokreću ekonomiju?

Ova knjiga ima kontroverznu tezu, ali u osnovi ispravnu. Neuspeh da se prepozna uloga vlade kao vodećeg inovatora može biti najveća pretnja rastu prosperiteta.

Martin Volf, glavni ekonomski komentator Financial Times


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